Kidney stones are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts.
Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone Or surgery can be done if you are at risked of developing kidney stones.
A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter, the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms
Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
Pain on urination
Pink, red or brown urine
Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
Nausea and vomiting
Persistent need to urinate
Urinating more often than usual
Fever and chills if an infection is present
Urinating small amounts of urine
Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid than the Fluid in your urine can dilute.
Types Of Kidney Stones
Knowing the type of kidney stone helps determine the cause and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones. Types of kidney stones includes
Calcium Stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance found in food. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate levels.
Struvite Stones. Struvite stones form in response to an infection, such as a Urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
Uric Acid Stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who don't drink enough Fluids or who lose too much Fluid, those who eat a high protein diet, and those who have Gout. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
Cystine Stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids.
Factors that increase your risk of developing kidney stones includes
Family or personal history. If someone in your family has kidney stones, you're more likely to develop stones, too. And if you've already had one or more kidney stones, you're at increased risk of developing another.
Dehydration. Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
Certain diets. Eating a diet that's high in protein, sodium and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much sodium in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones.
Being obese. High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.
Digestive diseases and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic Diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the levels of stone-forming substances in your urine.
Treatment for kidney stones varies, depending on the type of stone and the cause.
Small Stones With Minimal Symptoms
Most kidney stones won't require invasive treatment.
Drinking water. Drinking as much as 1.9 to 2.8 liters a day may help Flush out your urinary system.
Pain relievers. Passing a small stone can cause some discomfort. Pain relievers such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen or naproxen sodium can be recommended.
Medical therapy. Your doctor may give you a medication to help pass your kidney stone. This type of medication, known as an alpha blocker, relaxes the muscles in your ureter, helping you pass the kidney stone more quickly and with less pain.
Large stones and those that cause symptoms
Kidney stones that can't be treated with conservative measures either because they're too large to pass on their own or because they cause bleeding, kidney damage or ongoing Urinary tract infections may require more extensive treatment. Procedures may include
* Using sound waves to break up stones
* Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney.
* Using a scope to remove stones
* Parathyroid gland surgery
Prevention of kidney stones may include a combination of lifestyle changes and medications.
You may reduce your risk of kidney stones if you:
* Drink water throughout the day. For people with a history of kidney stones, doctors usually recommend passing about 2.5 liters of urine a day.
If you live in a hot, dry climate or you exercise frequently, you may need to drink even more water to produce enough urine. If your urine is light and clear, you're likely drinking enough water.
* Eat fewer oxalate-rich foods. Such as beets, okra, spinach, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate and soy products should be avoided.
* Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein. Reduce the amount of salt you eat and choose nonanimal protein sources, such as legumes. Consider using a salt substitute.
* Continue eating calcium-rich foods, but use caution with calcium supplements. Calcium in food doesn't have an effect on your risk of kidney stones. Ask your doctor before taking calcium supplements, as these have been linked to increased risk of kidney stones. You may reduce the risk by taking supplements with meals. Diets low in calcium can increase kidney stone formation in some people.
The type of kidney stones will determine the kind of medicine that you will need.
Calcium stones. To help prevent calcium stones from forming, thiazide diuretic or a phosphate-containing preparation will be recommended.
Uric acid stones. Allopurinol will be recommended to reduce uric acid levels in your blood and urine and a medicine to keep your urine alkaline.
Struvite stones. In this case, Long-term use of antibiotics in small doses may help achieve this goal.
Cystine stones. Cystine stones can be difficult to treat. Drinking of more Fluids can help produce a lot more urine. If that alone doesn't help, medication can be prescribed to decreases the amount of cystine in your urine.