Education is the deliberate, systematic and sustained efforts to transmit, evoke or acquire knowledge, attitudes and values, skills and sensibilities and by learning that results from effort direct or indirect, intended or unintended. Education is also defined as a mechanism for giving persons marketable skills.
In both definitions, education is seen as a medium in which a conscious effort is made to change the attitude of an individual to behave acceptable way so that he or she would be useful to himself or herself and the society at large.
A policy is defined as a plan of action, statement or idea, proposed or adopted by the government, political parties or business. The policy is an explicit or implicit single decision or group of decisions which they set out directives for guiding future decisions, initiates or retard action, guide implementation of the previous decision.
The educational policy may be described as a category of decisions that are necessary to the conduct of education. Again they are decision-making areas of education. Policy implementation could be described as putting into effect the decisions entailed in the policy mandate. For any educational policy to succeed, there are procedures to follow.
The initial stage helps to determine who will do what, how it will be done and when it should be done, implementation stage which involves setting time, target and assigning duties, raising of funds and enduring that there are no obstacles for the implementation, monitoring to assess what has been done so far and the shortfalls.
Challenges that face developing countries regarding the implementation of educational policies are as follows:
Poor communication network within the implementation process, when implementers or subordinates do not know what they are supposed to do or when there is a distortion of information or contradictory directives or incompatible requirements. Some members may not receive the information being passed on at all. Such a situation is likely to place an impediment on the effective implementation of a policy.
Inadequate economic resources to support the implementation process fully. The implementation of a policy needs enough economic resources such as funds, infrastructure facilities to make the process successful. In a situation where these resources are not adequately supplied at the appropriate time as happens in most developing countries, implementation, therefore, becomes unachievable.
Political challenges, when a policy is ongoing and there is a change of government, the in-coming government may not favour that policy, there is a possibility or likelihood for the new government to discontinue with the policy ( partisan opposition for the policy).
Developing countries are bedevilled with many challenges such as poor communication, inadequate economic resources, political challenges, etc.